Annotations for What's In Your Water?
Cover page citations by CUP: http://www.damascuscitizensforsustainability.org/whats-in-the-water-references/
Fracking is now taking place in 35 states…
InfoGraphic: Utica and Marcellus Shale Wells Drilled in Ohio per year.
Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Oil and Gas Resources http://oilandgas.ohiodnr.gov/shale
According to the US Department of Energy, U.S. shale gas production has increased 12-fold over the last decade and this trend is expected to continue through at least 2035 – rising from 5 trillion cubic feet per year in 2010 (23 percent of total U.S. dry gas production) to 13.6 trillion cubic feet per year in 2035 (49 percent of total U.S. dry gas production.) http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/why_is_shale_gas_important.pdf
Shale gas development:
US Department of Energy http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/
Pipe line info:
How big is the impact?
Number of people living in the Ohio River Watershed: more than 25 million.
Ohio: 7,388,102 / 11,590,000= 64%
West Virginia: 1,590,934 /1,850,000= 86%
Kentucky: 4,282,345 / 4,413,000 = 97%
Indiana: 4,585,511 / 6,597,000 = 70%
2011- High Pressure horizontal fracking begins in parts of Ohio
2014- Land men explore parts of central Kentucky, looking to lease mineral rights at $30 an acre. http://www.wkyt.com/home/headlines/Fracking-debate-may-be-on-way-to-Kentucky-288917281.html
2015- More than 1000 horizontal wells have been completed across West Virginia alone. http://www.wvcommerce.org/energy/fossil_energy/marcellusshale.aspx
Populations for each state can be found at http://www.orsanco.org/basin-populationMap… this data is from 2010 . We need to include the populations of Illinois and Indiana on that map as well.
Cite the person who created the map… who?
Explosives, Fires & Blowout-
Leave as is. Need citation from CUP
Workers Death & Injuries section-
Leave as is. Need citation from CUP
Fracking can lead to the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), including high levels of radium-226. In 2016 it was discovered that enhanced radioactive fracking waste from Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia had been illegally dumped in Kentucky landfills which were not equipped to handle radioactive waste. Radioactive brine from conventional oil and gas development in Kentucky has already caused significant pollution in places like Martha, KY. Need Citations. Who wrote this material?
Alt material on radioactivity:
New York State found levels of radium – 226 that were up to 260 times the legal release limit when they tested wastewater from six gas wells in Schuyler County. The Marcellus Shale contains uranium, which produces radioactive radon gas. The radon will be piped to homes in cities along with the natural gas collected from fracking. Need Citations. Who wrote this material?
From 2010-2014 West Virginia had 122 complaints that drilling contaminated water wells in the state. Four of those cases were strong enough to force drillers to take corrective action.
"Water in at least three U.S. states is polluted from FRACKING as hundreds of complaints are reported across the country" Associated Press, January 6, 2014.
Wastewater: Keep first paragraph then add:
Each fracked well produces millions of gallons of polluted wastewater that can contain heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, oil, grease, brines, and radioactivity. Wastewater is typically held in large open ponds or tanks, then transported to injection wells or municipal water treatment plants that can’t handle these pollutants. The Associated Press reported that more than 175 million gallons of fracking wastewater spilled from 2009 to 2014. Wastewater injections can lead to induced earthquakes, and were found to have contaminated a drinking water aquifer in California.
Fracking creates a few jobs – but also brings transient workers to an area, who compete with local residents for housing and may have negative effects on communities. In some communities in Ohio, the initiation of drilling was followed by decreased local employment over a six-year period.
Water depletion: The more water used in fracking operations, the more waste produced. On average, Ohio’s 758 Utica wells use 6.88 million gallons of freshwater and produce 225,883 gallons of brine per well.
Public Lands (to replace NYC’s unfiltered water)
Most public lands in Kentucky and elsewhere are open to fracking. Oil and gas development is allowed on most of the Daniel Boone National Forest, Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Cumberland Gap National Historic Park, and Mammoth Cave National Park. Kentucky state lands, including State Parks, Wildlife Management Areas, and State Forests are similarly vulnerable.
Fracking can have dramatic effects on forests, with well sites and pipeline corridors causing forest fragmentation, deforestation, and degradation from invasive species. The Nature Conservancy estimates 38,000 to 90,000 acres of forest loss from fracking in Pennsylvania by 2030, with up to 220,000 acres of forest impacted in that state alone.
Note: The numbers in the brochure cite a report by The Nature Conservancy. The numbers I see in that report are different that what’s in the brochure. I would like to know more about how the numbers/graphic were put together. The TNC report states:
“By 2030, a range of between 38,000 to 90,000 acres of forest cover could be cleared by new Marcellus gas development in the state. Forest clearing for the wind development scenarios is much smaller, ranging from 1,900 to 5,200 acres. Such clearings would create new forest edges where the risk of predation, changes in light and humidity levels, and expanded presence of invasive species could threaten forest interior species in 91,000 to 220,000 forest acres adjacent to Marcellus development and 13,400 to 36,000 forest acres adjacent to wind development.”
Page 5 – What can you do?
Don’t drill Appalachia
The Appalachian Mountains are the most biologically diverse in the country. From the foothills to the highland plateau, millions of people get their drinking water from the headwaters of this region. Much of this water ends up in the Ohio River. Communities can take action to protect their counties through partnerships with both fiscal courts as well as local planning and zoning commissions. These government entities have the authority to place specific requirements on local development, ultimately discouraging fracking activity.
Keep the box: “Tell your Governor no…”
Kentucky: Matt Beavin
West Virginia: Earl Ray Tomblin
(304) 558-2000 or 1-888-438-2731
Tennessee : Bill Haslam
Ohio: John Kasich
Join the Movement
….to protect the drinking water and public health of millions.
...join them today.
Kentucky Environmental Foundation
128 Main Street
Berea, KY 40403
Find other local anti-fracking groups here:
Frack Free Foothills
Frack Tracker Alliance
Partner Page – Update
For more information and documentation on these fracking facts, visit:
FrackFreeFoothills.org/references (need to create and confirm this site)
Kentucky Environmental Foundation and Frack Free Foothills
In 2013, landmen began approaching homeowners in central Kentucky about leasing mineral rights for fracking operations. With the start of this operation, community members took swift action to engage citizens, research concerns, and identify solutions to prevent the development of fracking development in the area. Coordinated by Frack Free Foothills, an organization that draws together a diverse range of partners, citizens are taking action to protect their air, water, and soil from potential fracking operations.
Big thanks to:
Damascus Citizens for Sustainability…(all the people listed before)
Jim Scheff, Katie Gardner, Lane Boldman, Deborah Payne, Heather Warman, Craig Williams (Who else?)
Support for this project was provided by… (all the people mentioned before) and the Goldman Foundation.
Sand, or silica, is another resource used in the fracking process. Approximately 95 billion pounds of sand were used in fracking in 2014, and each well requires about 5 million pounds of sand.
The Berea Sandstone (ranging from the outer Bluegrass and Knobs region up through northern Ohio) is a major source of sand likely to be useful in fracking, and a silica mine permit has recently been approved for operation at Furnace Mountain, near Red River Gorge in Powell County, Kentucky. Air quality is negatively impacted by silica mining, and truck traffic on remote roads can create a hazard to safety and air quality.
Industry publications estimate that each shale gas well requires approximately 5 million pounds of sand or other proppant for the hydraulic fracturing process.
“ Silica sand is one of many ingredients used in the hydraulic fracturing process. During fracking, operators blast thousands of tons of sand and millions of gallons of water and chemicals into the ground to release oil and natural gas deposits stored in shale formations.
As fracking accelerates in the United States, demand for "frac sand" could climb 30 percent from 2013 to 2015, an increase of about 95 billion pounds of sand, according to industry projections. Sand miner U.S. Silica Holdings Inc. said demand for its own volumes of sand could double or triple in the next five years, Reuters reported last week.
In a report released Thursday, environmental groups and residents like Trinko said they are worried that expanding sand production will lead to increased health, air and water complications in communities near the mines.”
Additional source: http://www.civilsocietyinstitute.org/media/092514release.cfm (note TN listed as likely state where this is an issue)
Note that this report is older, and the fact that the Furnace Mountain site was proposed for silica mining was not predicted. Here’s an article about that. http://www.cvt-news.com/news/?p=10579